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Jerónimo Gracián de la Madre de Dios

Date et lieu de naissance / Date and place of birth
1545 à Valladolid

Date et lieu de mort / Date and place of death
1614, Bruxelles

Confession / Religion
Catholique

Lieu de capture / Place of capture
En mer, entre Gaète (Italie) et Rome

Dates de la captivité / Period of detention
10 novembre 1592 - été 1594

Lieu(x) de captivité / Place(s) of detention

Bizerte

Tunis

Tabarka


Mode de libération / Mode of liberation

Racheté par Simon Askenazi, un marchand juif tunisien, à la fin de l'été 1594 à Tabarka.


Sources

Gracián, Jerónimo, and Juan Luis Astigarraga. Cartas, Monumenta historica Carmeli Teresiani. Roma: Teresianum, 1989.
Gracián, Jerónimo, and Bertini Giovanni Maria. Peregrinacion de Anastasio, Espirituales españoles: Serie A, Textos; t. 18. Barcelona: J. Flors, 1966.
Gracián, Jerónimo, de Bunes Ibarra Miguel Ángel, and Alonso Acero Beatriz. Tratado de la redención de cautivos: Ediciones espuela de plata, 2006.
Gracián, Jerónimo, and Luis Rosales. Jerónimo Gracián. [Madrid]: Ediciones FE, 1942.


Bibliographie / Bibliography

Bunes Ibarra, Miguel Ángel and Alonso Acero, Beatriz, “Crónica de cautiverio y misión,” in: Tratado de la redención de cautivos: Ediciones espuela de plata, 2006.
Ricard, Robert. "Ibero-africana: le Père Jérome Gratien de la Mère de Dieu et sa captivité à Tunis (1593-1595)," Revue Africaine LXXXIX (1945), p. 190-200.


Auteur(s) de la fiche / Author(s) of the form
Hershenzon Daniel (University of Michigan - Ann Arbor)

Notice / Note on the narrative

[Notice disponible en: Anglais] [version française en préparation]

The Carmelite priest Jerónimo Gracián, confessor of Saint Teresa, was captured in October 1592 on his way to Rome and held captive for two years in Tunis. Late in the summer of 1594, Simon Askenazi, a Tunisian Jewish merchant, ransomed him. Gracián wrote two accounts of his captivity: the first was part of a spiritual autobiography, Peregrinacion de Anastasio; the second was published in 1609 and formed part of a treatise where he urged Christians to give alms to the orders of redemption. Like other captives, Gracián wrote many letters to his family and friends urging them to ransom him. However, thanks to his ties to Santa Teresa and to his importance as a humanist, his letters, unlike others, survived. Moreover, in addition to the accounts and letters, his letter of manumission and the safe pass issued to him upon his ransom survived and are available for study in the National Historical Archive (AHN) in Madrid. This richness of documentation enables to reconstruct his trajectory of captivity from various angles and to get a good grasp of the ways in which Gracián experienced and represented his captivity and ransom.